A number of human factors are involved in accidents ranging from perceptual errors through to deliberate violations. In order to respond safely to a hazard the following sequence needs to take place.

First, the hazard has to be registered. Second the hazard has to be recognised as a hazard and third there has to be a willingness and time available for an appropriate response to be made.

One obstacle to the registration of hazards is that of blind spots. If the eye or brain has not registered the incident then no response will be made.

Even if the brain has registered the incident people vary in their Hazard Perception skills. This refers to the time taken to respond to hazards. There are factors that restrict the time and space available to make an appropriate response.

For example people vary in their Close Following and hence their room for manoeuvre may be compromised. Likewise people vary in their Speed choices with some people left with not enough time to respond.

In general it has been found that driving violations are associated with accident involvement. A final factor that has been shown to be involved in accidents is that of Fatigue.

The Driver Risk Profile provides drivers with measures of their Hazard Perception skills, Close Following, Speed, Violations and susceptibility to Fatigue.

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